JESEI

teacher’s notes

Fact
P-waves are primary waves because
they arrive at monitoring stations first

Fact
S-waves are secondary waves because
they arrive at monitoring stations
second

Fact
The time difference between the arrival
of P-waves and S-waves depends upon
how far the monitoring station is from
the earthquake epicentre

Fact
P-waves are compression (longitudinal)
waves so they travel through the solid
parts of the Earth faster than S-waves

Fact
S-waves are shear waves so they
cannot travel through liquids. They
travel about half the speed of P-waves

Fact
If a P-wave arrives at a station 1.5
minutes before an S-wave then that
station is 900 km away from the
earthquake epicentre

Help card 1: circles drawn with their centres on each monitoring station will
intersect at the epicentre of the earthquake
Help card 2: radius of circle is found from the distance of the monitoring station
from the epicentre (drawn to scale).

Figure 1

Figure 2

teacher’s notes

Fact
P-waves are primary waves because
they arrive at monitoring stations
first

Fact
S-waves are secondary waves because
they arrive at monitoring stations
second

Fact
The time difference between the arrival
of P-waves and S-waves depends upon
how far the monitoring station is from
the earthquake epicentre

Fact
P-waves are compression
(longitudinal) waves so they travel
through the solid parts of the Earth
faster than S-waves

Fact
S-waves are shear waves so they
cannot travel through liquids. They
travel about half the speed of P-
waves

Fact
If a P-wave arrives at a station 1.5
minutes before an S-wave then that
station is 900 km away from the
earthquake epicentre

Help card 1: circles drawn with their centres on each monitoring station will
intersect at the epicentre of the earthquake
Help card 2: radius of circle is found from the distance of the monitoring station
from the epicentre (drawn to scale).

Figure 1

Figure 2

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